TURKMENISTAN THE GREAT

This ancient land has lot to tell to curious traveller, though not much is obvious.

In 1 millenium BC on the territory of modern Turkmenistan there already existed Great Kingdoms of  Margiana, Parthia, Midia and Khorazmia.

In the 6th century the territory fell under the domination of the Persian Empire, and in the 4th century BC - the empire of Alexander the Great.

Arabs, spread Islam and Arab rule on the territory of modern Turkmenistan by sword in the 8th century. By 9th-10th centuries modern Turkmenistan was part of the empires of Samanids and Takhirids. Later in the 11th-13th centuries it was subdued by Seljuk Empire.

In the 13th century the country was invaded by the Mongol army led by Genghis Khan, who included the territory of Turkmenistan to his great empire. 

 In the 17-19 centuries the territory of modern Turkmenistan was the subject of a disputes between the Shah of Persia, Khan of Khiva and Khan of Bukhara. In 1869, Russian founded port of Krasnovodsk on the eastern shore of the Caspian Sea and by 1880s the country was annexed by the Russian Empire, which suppressed the rebellion of Turkmens in 1881. After the Russian Revolution of 1917 temporary Turkmen government proclaimed the independence of Turkmenistan, but in 1920 the Bolsheviks established the Soviet regime in the country. Turkmenistan Autonomous Republic was created in 1924 after delimitation of Soviet Republics. Republic of Turkmenistan declared its independence in 1991.

Turkmenistan has sharply continental dry climate with its typical features - considerable daily and yearly fluctuations in temperature, dry air, low clouds. Winters are warm, frost-free. Air temperature and moisture deficit particularly high in July.

Turkmenistan borders with Uzbekistan on the north and east (border length 1,621 km), Kazakhstan (379 km) - in the north, east and south of the country borders with Afghanistan (744 km), to the south - with Iran (992 km). On the west the country borders with Caspian Sea.

Population (4.29 million people) - predominantly Turkmen (72%), Russian (9.5%), Uzbeks (9%), Kazakhs (2.5%).

Official language - Turkmen.

Among the believers is the most common Sunni Islam.

Currency - manat.